- Renal System & Its Disorders
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The human kidney anatomy is well equipped to perform all its crucial functions. The following kidney The following kidney diagram represents the structure of a kidney sliced vertically;
The kidneys are dark-red, bean-shaped organs. One side of the kidney bulges outward (convex) and the other side is indented (concave). There is a cavity attached to the indented side of the kidney, called the Renal capsule which helps to protect them against infections and trauma. The kidney is divided into two main areas; a light outer area called the renal cortex, and a darker inner area called the renal medulla. Within the medulla there are 8 or more cone-shaped sections known as renal pyramids. The areas between the pyramids are called renal columns.
The most basic structures of the kidneys, are nephrons. Inside each kidney there are about one million of these microscopic structures. These are responsible for filtering the blood removing waste products.
The renal artery delivers blood to the kidneys each day. Over 180 liters (50 gallons) of blood pass through the kidneys every day. When this blood enters the kidneys, it is filtered and returned to the heart via the renal vein.
The process of separating wastes from the body's fluids and eliminating them, is known as excretion. The body has four organ systems that are responsible for excretion. The urinary system is one of the main organ systems responsible for excretion. It excretes a broad variety of metabolic wastes, toxins, drugs, hormones, salts, hydrogen ions and water. Therefore, the kidneys are the main organs of the urinary system
The kidneys are full of blood vessels. Blood vessels are integral to efficient kidney function. Every function of the kidney involves blood, therefore, it requires a lot of blood vessels to facilitate these functions. Together, the two kidneys contain about 160 km of blood vessels.
Both kidneys reside against the back muscles in the upper abdominal cavity. They sit opposite each other on both sides of the spine. The right kidney sits a little bit lower than the left to accommodate the liver.